EASA

Early Assessment and Support Alliance

therapy101:

barbellsandbehaviorism:

therapy101:

cognitivedefusion:

Glad to hear you’re drinking the clinical psychology Kool-Aid! I can make these suggestions! Note that the suggestions I make will be 1/10000000 of the research that currently exists (trust me, I counted). I’m only exposing you to some of my favorites. Also for some I’ll just give you author names because some researchers have done way too much stuff for me to pick just 1-2 of their publications. Check the citations for each of these articles, though, and you’ll find plenty more that will pique your interest!

(I’m also going to skip APA citation and just give you the first author, year, and title of the publication. This ain’t no manuscript, yo.)

DSM criticism:

  • Andrews (2007) Dimensionality and the category of major depressive episode
  • Beutler (2002) Diagnosis and treatment guidelines: The example of depression [note: this is a book chapter, but it might be available on a university database]
  • Craddock (2005) The beginning of the end for the Kraepelinian dichotomy
  • Frances (1991) An A to Z guide to DSM-IV conundrums

Evidence-based practice:

  • Brett Deacon
  • Dianne Chambless
  • Scott Lilienfeld
  • Larry Beutler
  • Evan Forman
  • David Barlow
  • Paul Meehl

Articles every clinical psych should know:

Note: this one is a little tougher because within clinical psychology there are hundreds, if not thousands, of sub-fields. People who are interested in anxiety research (like me) probably don’t need to know the intricacies of other sub-fields that don’t have much relevance. So, I can really only give you things that are very broad, or things that are very narrow and specific to certain research interests.

  • Meehl (1973) Why I do not attend case conferences
  • Meehl (1954) Clinical versus statistical prediction
  • McFall (1991) Manifesto for a science of clinical psychology
  • Cohen (1994) The earth is round (p < .05)
  • Beutler (2002) The dodo bird is extinct
  • Blackledge (2003) An introduction to relational frame theory: Basics and applications
  • Chambless (2001) Empirically supported psychological interventions
  • Craske (2008) Optimizing inhibitory learning during exposure
  • Deacon (2012) The biomedical model of mental disorder
  • Deacon (2013) Therapist reservations about exposure therapy
  • France (2007) Chemical imbalance explanation for depression
  • Hayes (2013) Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: Examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy
  • Lilienfeld (2010) Can psychology become a science
  • Lilienfeld (2013) Why many clinical psychologists are resistant to evidence based practice
  • Olatunji (2009) The cruelest cure? Ethical issues in the implementation of exposure-based treatments
  • Rosen (2003) Psychology should list empirically supported principles of change and not credential trademarked therapies or other treatment packages

My favorite researchers (in absolutely no order, except for #1):

  • Steve Hayes (ACT)
  • Evan Forman (Empirically-supported treatments; mediators of change; ACT; CBT)
  • Eric Youngstrom (Evidence-based assessment)
  • Brett Deacon (Anxiety; empirically-supported treatments)
  • Michelle Craske (Anxiety; mediators of change through learning theory)
  • David Barlow (Anxiety; evidence-based assessment)
  • Jon Abramowitz (Anxiety)
  • Scott Lilienfeld (Evidence-based practice/research)
  • Larry Beutler (Evidence-based practice/research)
  • Joanna Arch (Anxiety)
  • Diane Chambless (Empirically-supported treatments)

So obviously most of my suggestions are catered to my research interests, which are listed on my about me page. Some of these may not be completely necessary for all practicing psychologists to know (e.g., treatment of anxiety, though honestly anxiety kind of pervades virtually every disorder so it would be wise to have an idea of its etiology), but some I think are necessary to know (e.g., empirically-supported treatments, empirical standards of practice, etc.)

And actually I would like to tag therapy101 and get her list of articles that every clinical psychologist should know and her favorite researchers, mostly so I can expand my collection of publications!

Best of luck to you, anon! Please let me know what other questions you may have.

Great topic! I love it when people take initiative to look into new ideas and explore all the cool stuff that psych research has to offer. cognitivedefusion is totally right- there is a lot of research and lit out there and it’s pretty impossible to read or cover all of it. A lot of my favorite stuff is very specialized to my field (serious mental illness) but it’s also important to have an understanding of psychology as a whole, clinical psychology specifically, and things pertinent to being a competent consumer of literature like methods.

Starting to poke around yourself in the lit is one of the best ways to get to know what’s out there and what you like, so I really encourage everyone who is interested in psych (or really any field) to start doing lit reviews on their own time (even though they are often frustrating and annoying) so you can start to get a feel for your field, your favorite journals, authors, and topics. 

I think cognitivedefusion has a lot of great articles covered above, so I’ll try not to be too redundant. I’ll also just note that I think it’s really important to read things that are congruent with your theoretical orientation but also things that are not- we must constantly challenge ourselves and think critically about what we think and why we think that way and whether maybe we should consider thinking differently. We have to always live in the realm of ambiguity and the willingness to be wrong if we want to do good science and good clinical work.

Articles I think every clinical psychologist should read:

  • Cardemil (2003)- Guess who’s coming to therapy? Getting comfortable with conversations about race and ethnicity in psychotherapy
  • Chambless (1998)- Defining empirically supported therapies [really, all Chambless and Hollon’s work in this area is awesome, but this was one of the seminal articles in the area]
  • DeRubeis (2005)- A conceptual and methodological analysis of the nonspecifics argument [also a great researcher in therapy process and outcome research]
  • Lilienfeld (2007)- psychological treatments that cause harm [anything by lilienfeld is thoughtful and usually widely applicable]
  • Peterson (2004)- Science, scientism, and professional responsibility
  • Wampold (2009)- barriers to the dissemination of empirically supported treatments: matching messages to the evidence
  • Whitaker’s books are great criticisms of the diagnostic system and psychiatry- I like Anatomy of an Epidemic best but I know that other people prefer Mad in America, which is also really good. I would note that Whitaker is a journalist and not a researcher and not trained in psychology, psychiatry, mental health or medicine. I think his points and his writing are good and worth reading but they are not academic and can be biased and exaggerated, so it’s important to have your critical thinking up on high when you go through it. 

My favorite SMI researchers, in no particular order: 

  • Gordon Paul (we lost this titan of the SMI field this year- his work was paramount in my field and fundamental to the work I do and I really just cannot overstate how important he is to psychology and how awesome of a person he was)
  • Joanna Fiszdon (SMI, cog rehab)
  • Jimmy Choi (SMI, dementia, cog rehab)
  • Will Spaulding (SMI, psych rehab, policy)
  • Will Carpenter (schizophrenia, diagnosis, cognition)
  • Morris Bell (SMI, cog rehab)
  • Martin Harrow (schizophrenia, prognosis, treatment)
  • Kim Mueser (SMI, psych rehab, therapy)
  • Marianne Farkas (SMI, psych rehab, recovery movement)
  • William Anthony (SMI, psych rehab, self determination)
  • Pat Deegan (SMI, peer movement, recovery movement)
  • Susan McGurk (SMI, psych rehab, cog rehab)
  • E. Sally Rogers (SMI, psych rehab)
  • Bob Drake (SMI, supported employment)
  • Gary Bond (SMI, supported employment, recovery movement)
  • Larry Davidson (SMI, recovery movement, communities)

Other awesome researchers:

  • Marsha Linehan (DBT, treatment)
  • Steve Hayes (ACT, anxiety)
  • David Barlow (CT, anxiety)
  • Elizabeth Loftus (memory, cognition)
  • Stanley Sue (culture, ethnicity)
  • Albert Bandura (behavior, modeling)

I’m glad to have you around, anon! Hopefully you’ll have this inundation of information exciting and have lots of cool stuff to talk to us about soon :) 

The above commentaries from cognitivedefusion and therapy101 are fantastic, and I would further recommend all of their suggestions. But, here’s a few more essential papers and favorite researchers for me to add…

Papers:

  • McNally, R. (1999). EMDR and Mesmerism: a comparative historical analysis. J. of Anxiety Disorders.
  • Grove, W. M. et al. (2000). Clinical vs. mechanical prediction: a meta-analysis. Psychological Assessment.
  • Meehl, P. E. & Rosen, A. (1955). Antecedent probability and the efficiency of psychometric signs, patterns, or cutting scores. Psychological Bulletin.
  • Dawes, R. M. (1979). The Robust Beauty of Improper Linear Models in Decision Making. American Psychologist. 
  • Westen, D., Novotny, C. M., & Thompson-Brenner, H. (2004). The empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies: assumptions, findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychological Bulletin. 
  • Hayes, S. C. (1984). Making sense of spirituality. Behaviorism.
  • Lord, C. G. (2004). A Guide to PhD Graduate School: how they keep score in the big leagues. The Compleat Academic: a career guide, 3-15.

Researchers:

  • B. F. Skinner, of course (Behavioral Science)
  • Nate Azrin (Behavioral Psychotherapy)
  • Helene Chmura Kraemer (Biostatistics)
  • Patrick Friman (Applied Behavior Analysis)

Great additions from @barbellsandbehaviorism!

As an aside, do you like Dawes? I read his book House of Cards in undergrad (maybe 7-8 years ago now) and found the writing and arguments poor- really biased, setting up strawmen, not thorough, disregarding evidence, etc. 

Great collection! Gary Bond will be a featured presenter in our upcoming webinar series: "Early Psychosis Intervention for Teens and Young Adults: New and Empowering Approaches." He will speak on how to individualize the supported employment model in order to facilitate recovery based on each person’s needs and goals. 

The webinar is free and will feature some very influential people in the field of mental health (Barbara Walsh, Mary Moller, Gary Bond). Plus there will be call sessions where you can ask questions and participate in national dissemination discussions. This is a great opportunity for students and professionals alike. You can find more info here.

      Stuck in neutral: brain defect traps schizophrenics in twilight zone

neurosciencestuff:

People with schizophrenia struggle to turn goals into actions because brain structures governing desire and emotion are less active and fail to pass goal-directed messages to cortical regions affecting human decision-making, new research reveals.

Published in Biological…

The “negative” symptoms of schizophrenia - such as the lowered cognitive functioning, loss of motivation, and decreased affect - are often more problematic to individuals experiencing psychosis than the “positive” (delusions, hallucinations). It’s important to note that antipsychotics do not address the negative symptoms. Thus, it becomes essential that the individual and the family maintain structure and easy-to-follow system that helps people adjust and meet their goals.

(Source: sydney.edu.au)

What is expressed emotion and why is it important to control it?

Expressed emotion, or EE, refers to how family members spontaneously and negatively talk about the person in the family experiencing psychosis (or any other mental or physical condition). Family members with high expressed emotion are frequently hostile, critical, and intolerant of the person experiencing illness. Often, they believe that they are helping or giving advice. This can be the result of emotional over-involvement with the person experiencing illness and a lack of healthy boundaries. Usually, the person him or herself is blamed for their symptoms, rather than the disorder.

High EE can trigger symptoms or make them worse and more frequent. Research has demonstrated that individuals from families with high “expressed emotion” are 3.7 times more likely to relapse than in families from low expressed emotion families (where emotions are expressed calmly and without hostility/criticism). It’s important for family members to remember:

1) Remaining calm will help both the person experiencing illness and the family environment.

2) Don’t get angry over what can’t be controlled. Setting limits and boundaries are important, but prepare yourself to be in unexpected situations that are beyond your power to change.

3) Understand that the person’s actions can be a result of the illness, rather than behavioral problems.

4) Give the person space when they need it.

4) Have patience and compassion for yourself. Take time for your needs and seek out support. It can be tempting to focus exclusively on “fixing” the person experiencing illness. However, focusing too much can be overwhelming for that person, and unsustainable for family members

Low EE is vital to recovery - both for the person experiencing illness and the family itself. Take the time to consider your family’s communication patterns and assess if they are helping recovery to be successful.

      Early Intervention Model Is Effective, Warrants Expansion, and Influences Productivity | News

Directly educating community members and actively involving families in treatment can avoid the onset of full psychosis among at-risk young people and keep them in school and working, according to a new Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded study. The national Early Detection and Intervention for the Prevention of Psychosis Program (EDIPPP) demonstration shows how a package of pre-emptive services can prevent young people exhibiting the earliest signs and symptoms of a psychotic disorder from converting to full blown psychosis – enabling them to continue working and attending school.